The solid form that a shoe is molded on is called a “shoe last”. The most important aspect of proper fitting footwear is the design, volume and shape of the shoe last. Shoe lasts are based on international sizing which are coordinated and fitted with appropriate arches and patterns. In this stage, the uppers are stretched and molded with a moistened stiffener inserted between the upper and the lining of the insole. This is the part of the shoes that supports the entire weight of the wearer and secures the upper with its layers of linings and stiffeners taunt around it.
One of the most important parts of a shoe is the bottom or the soles. The upper and insole are glued together and the outer soles can now be glued onto them. The heel is then built up to the required height and riveted. All that remains of the shoe making process is for the maker to tidy up the footwear and add any ornamentation required.
Finally the last is removed and the inside of the shoe smoothed out. A sock, the thin piece of leather bearing is now then glued to the insole. The shoe is now finished and can be polished.